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 Presentation of our number 10 issue: "In the bowels of war: Migrations, refugees and forced displacement"  

 

 

 

 

Both global and historical, the different migrations of the new millennium are massive, diverse and particularly linked to wars and invasions in the Middle East and Africa. However, they are also economic (and work-related), cultural and social ones. Our America, Asia and Oceania are not the exception to the rule, but rather the confirmation of the phenomenon of migrations worldwide including their impacts in North America and Europe. But how to understand a phenomenon that is generating great transformations in our time? Such phenomenon cannot be ignored from the Social Sciences and Humanities. In fact, in the present issue of NuestrAmérica journal, readers will have the possibility to investigate at the core of diverse interpretations that demand a holistic and interdisciplinary look as well as the challenge of observing several cases and experiences that allow to generate theoretical approaches and discussions on the central subject: migration, refugees and forced displacement.

Starting at this issue, we have decided to make changes in the delivery of our material by expanding the previous section On-going Research by two new sections: Dossier, which will gather articles called for a specific theme, and Free Articles, in which we will publish articles that are of our interest but not necessarily related to the call. In both cases, we are talking about the same selection criteria from original research. As it has already been a stamp of our journal, we have the sections Militant Academy, with critical positions on the topic summoned; Conferences and Interviews, with the accompaniment of those who have excelled in an area related to the main theme; and Reviews to update and disseminate recent books of paramount interest.

This new delivery contains a large number of material worth reading one by one. For issue number 10, the Militant Academy section presents a critical essay by the historian, and Doctor in History by King's College London, Gabriela Cavalheiro titled "Volunteering and Intellectual Work: A Dialogue with Syrian Refugees in Turkey" in which she narrates the experiences of volunteer work with refugee women in Turkey. Based on gender theories and feminist criticism, Cavalheiro proposes an epistemic dialogue on the effects and impact of intellectual work on daily practice, accompanying the lives of exiled female Syrian refugees in a country directly involved in the Syrian war and destiny of most of its refugees. Working as a volunteer at the refugee camp in the Turkish city of Izmir, Cavalheiro was able to observe the health conditions of rural areas in the region, particularly in the process of "accompanying the menstrual health of women and adolescents with the objective of creating contextual alternatives to the precarious conditions of the camps". In everyday praxis, the academic discourse of gender studies often loses its sense of wholeness that the theories seek to achieve. In this sense, the clash between theory and practice gives rise to a new way of seeing and understanding the daily problems experienced by women and not only by women as refugees.

Changing section we are fortunate to share the interview made to Professor Dr. Ivonne Suárez of the School of History at the Industrial University of Santander (Universidad Industrial de Santander-Bucaramanga). She, as an academic authority in the field of research on historical memory, currently directs the Victim's Oral Memory Archives (Archivo de la Memoria Oral de Víctimas, AMOVI) and is director of the research group History, Archivistics and Research Networks (Historia, Archivística, y Redes de Investigación, HARED) as well as the journal Cambios & Permanencias (Changes & Permanence). Moreover, among her research credentials, she holds a postdoctoral degree in Social Networks by the Universite Toulouse Le Mirail (France). So we celebrate to have, in the present edition of nuestrAmérica journal, the interpretation of an expert on the theme proposed: Forced displacement in Colombia and its struggle for Memory. Indeed, with her contribution, the reader may have more elements of analysis to discuss a social phenomenon that, in the opinion of the Colombian historian, seems to transcend the analysis of Migration proposed by international organizations.

Inaugurating our Dossier we find a paper by Master Abdiel Rodríguez Reyes, who is currently the president of the Central American Association of Philosophy (Asociación Centroamericana de Filosofía, ACAFI). It was striking to find his article, which comes to raise a fact that at first glance would not be related to the topic summoned, but which is transcendental for a new reading of the racist policies that prevail today. The article is Toussaint and Hegel. Lessons from Abya Yala. In it, Rodriguez Reyes pays close attention to the hypothesis that Hegel's considerations stem from the knowledge of Haiti’s liberating process. The conclusions he reaches are, undoubtedly, of great interest to consider how the current thinking about the supposed superiorities of one human group over another has been constructed.

From Mexico we have the article Migration and violence in Cancun: study of two irregular settlements by political scientist Minerva Alavez San Pedro, who is currently a candidate for Doctor in Social Anthropology by the Center for Research and Higher Studies in Social Anthropology (CIESAS-Chiapas, Mexico) attached to the Autonomous University of Chiapas (UNACH). In her article, Alavez San Pedro raises, as a thesis, the state inability to meet the needs of security and housing in irregular settlements, which are considered products of labor migration that Cancun has experienced since 1970 as an Integral Tourist Center. To support her thesis, the author takes two specific cases, namely, the study of two neighborhoods –localities– located in Cancun: El Milagro and Tres Reyes. Based on an ethnographic analysis of the population and a review of newspapers to monitor the local and national media, the article allows us to gainan in-depth understanding of the phenomenon of labor migration and its relationship with the current social situation in Mexico and, particularly, in the city above-mentioned.

In their article Transnational Communities, academia and civil society towards the construction of an immigration agenda in Mexico, Rodolfo García Zamora and Montserrat García Guerrero present the reality of Mexican migration policies towards Mexican citizens. It can be summarized in “arrête de faire et laisser passer” (stop doing and let go); however, before the return of migrants and massive deportations, the Mexican government faces another major problem: How to integrate returning migrants, both economically and socially? What public policies can beimplemented to improve their social welfare? In the absence of concrete proposals for public policies focused on this sector of the population, García Zamora and García Guerrero envisage the opportunity for organized civil society to take the agenda and be able to generate serious and concrete proposals. They make a historical account of the path taken by organized civil society and suggest a series of proposals in which civil society can generate and develop the spaces of supportand reintegration of returning migrants in light of blindness and absence of a proactive andconscious government of the problem that the returning population suffers.

José Gaibor, Pascual García and Ximena Songor pose and dismantle the apology and exacerbated attributes granted to remittances in their article Remittances: Inequality output in Latin American countries? A comparative study between Ecuador and Mexico. The authors make a comparison between the remittances in the income received in Ecuadorian and Mexican homes. Shipments during the period 2007-2014 were analyzed through the Gini index, showing that the remittances are not significant in the improvement of the income distribution. Moreover, they make a historical account of the two countries, emphasizing the different paths in terms of public and economic policies. While the path of neoliberalism, at its best, deprived Mexico from its demographic bonus and created enormous inequality, the policies adopted by the country of the south face inequality much better. However, in both cases, the authors demonstrate with subtlety and objectivity the role that remittances play in improving the situation of inequality in these countries, being public policies a key factor that each country adopted for their populations. These results reinforce the thesis proposed by Garcia Zamora and García Guerrero, which suggests that public policies are a determining factor for the improvement of the society that expels migrants.

Another article included in our edition is titled The double rupture of the dynamic equilibrium of the Colombian-Venezuelan living frontier: new demographic profiles and their impact on collective Colombian goods. Here, the economist Jorge Enrique Asela Molina of the Industrial University of Santander (UIS), who is a researcher and consultant in the areas of Public Finance, Decentralization, Public Finance and Regional Development together with the economist of the UIS, Ariel Alvarado Araque, who is a university professor and Researcher in Social Sciences, suggest a theoretical approach on the effects on the provision of collective goods and services caused by the current situation of Venezuelan migration in Colombian territory. The authors concluded that the current profile of the Venezuelan migrant population demands a significant challenge for the Colombian State in terms of public policies. Thus, from an economic and social approach analysis, those who read this edition will have the opportunity to approach a phenomenon of current migration as the Colombian-Venezuelan living border.

We also bring a contribution from André Dutra, member of the Committee of the Great ABC / SP of Solidarity to the Palestinian People, collaborator of the International Relations Sector of the Landless Workers' Movement (MST) and the Nucleus of Studies of International Politicsof the University Center Santo André Foundation (NEPI / CUFSA). In his text, Dutra tells the common experiences created by the Global Campaign for the Right to Return to Palestine. Palestinian refugees: a global campaign for the right to return shows that the campaign is an open organism to all institutions and organizations worldwide interested in the Palestinian cause and has members in more than 70 countries on all continents. They carry out activities and actions with the aim of creating conditions for popular debate, whose aim is to remain at the center of the global human rights movement, which implies taking into account the situation of the Palestinians inside and outside Israel.

On closing the Dossier, José Capera Figueroa, a political scientist from the University of Tolima (Colombia) and a Master’s degree student at the Research Institute Dr. José María Luis Mora (Mexico), and José Julián Nañez Rodríguez, a candidate to Doctor in Education by Rudecolombia, Ibagué (Colombia), offer the article entitled A Critical Approach on Citizenship from the Public Sphere in Latin America. It has been considered within this section with a purpose: to question what impact the category citizenship is having at the present time. It is a radical question that these authors approach, since it helps to understand the categorization that thousands of people are living on the planet and which causes the forced displacement that we have wanted to understand in this issue.

As we mentioned before, starting at this issue we also have a section of Free articles that must be clarified. Our journal has a specific character: we are a critical publication with a position that promotes Human Rights, critical thinking and social participation. It can be said that Free Articles is the only new section, as the Dossier section continues with what On-going Research was already doing. For that reason it was necessary to specify what will be published in it. The Free Articles section will include evaluated articles from a call open all year. For the selection of an article, it first needs to be considered of interest by our journal and then we need to approve the evaluation of its content. With this, we dissipate any doubts for our readers: our journal continues with the same essence and will not become a bundle of unrelated articles or, and this case would simply be regrettable, without any sense.

Inaugurating the Free Articles section, Natalia Zambrano Ríos, Graduate in Social Work from the Academic University of Christian Humanism (Chile), and Isaac Navarrete Urzúa, Student in Integral Formation in Transpersonal Psychology from the Transpersonal Humanistic Institute (Instituto Humanista Transpersonal) (Chile), present a dialogue between the analectics, the humanist model and the transpersonal model in order to propose new ways of conceiving and performing therapies. In their article, Liberation Therapies: "A journey towards mysticism and ethics" it can be observed that to make this proposal they relieve the mystical dimension while discussing the ethical consequences of this new way of understanding a therapy.

As the reading continues, we find an article authored by Haroldo Leme, student of the sixth period of the International Relations course at the Santo André Foundation, Brazil. His article, Soft power of the American film industry in the Vargas era (1939-1943) is a bibliographical study in which the author intends to discuss the implications of using the concept of soft power, outlined in the pioneering work of American political scientist Joseph Nye about diplomatic relations between the United States and Brazil just prior to the entry of the United States into World War II. The continental context of the "Good Neighborliness Policy", outlined by then President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, marked the strategic policy of his country to bring together Latin America in its area of influence, having, among other tools, the film industry as one of his main propaganda weapons. The contrast with the use of cinema by the German Third Reich would not be a mere coincidence in US policies for Latin America during the 1940s, which had its own inspiration in this sphere in the sense of using cinema as propagator of its political and economic ideas for the Latin American countries.

From Colombia, Professor Ledis Bohórquez Farfán and Professor Mg. Giovanni Bohórquez Pereira of the Pontifical Bolivarian University (Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, UPB-Bucaramanga) and Professor Mg. Gladys Adriana Espinel Rubio from the Francisco de Paula Santander University (Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, UFPS-Cúcuta), also contribute in this section with the article Scientific Blog, Source of Authority in journalism. It is important to emphasize that the article stemmed from the research project "Characterization of the information circulating in the newspapers Vanguardia Liberal and El Frente on children victims of armed conflict", which ended in 2014 and was funded by UPB-Bucaramanga. In the article the authors seek to reflect on the limited treatment that the Media gave to the children affected by the armed conflict in Colombia. Based on a review on the tenets of Gatekeeping theory and on the proliferation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), it is pointed out that the Scientific Blog is an important reference to make visible the social and political problems of the country. Especially, the case of children in the middle of the war, through the Scientific Blog, can become a source of authority in journalism. The authors finish the article presenting "Blog children and girls of conflict born for peace" as a sample of the investigative process.

The article The violence of Benjamin and the Colombian conflict from the notion of Victim: a challenge in the new scenario of war? by Professor Mg. Yuber Rojas Ariza of the Pontifical Bolivarian University (Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, UPB -Bucaramanga) closes this section. This article is a reflection on the transformation of violence and, by extension, the transformation of Colombian war. From theoretical elements on violence by Walter Benjamin, it is argued that the Colombian State, despite being based on the oldest democracy in Latin America, is also based on a State that generates violence. In this context, the author establishes a relationship with the notion of Victim from which the post-agreement scenario is interpreted. A scenario of violence upsurge because its transformation is patented in a new dynamic of war of the structural victimizers: a war from the countryside to the city. However, the author also points another possibility: the alternative of overcoming this violence scenario in the cities through a structural policy -and not temporary- justified in the Clean Media [reine Mittel], that is, in the power of the word, in new social values that can be built from the conception of the structural victims of the armed conflict in Colombia.

To close our tenth issue, the Reviews section offers a review of the book Voices of Inclusion. Interpellations and critiques to the idea of "Inclusion" published by Praxis Editorial (Argentina) and the Veracruz Teacher Training College (Benemérita Escuela Normal Veracruzana) (Mexico) in 2016. Betsy Soto Pérez, Master in Philosophy, and Irazema Ramírez Hernández, Master in High school Teaching, present this book that is a compilation of several works that discuss the ideas about inclusion and denounce the exclusive views on the subject. They evince that it is not an educational fad but a real need. Through fifteen texts, the authors explain in their work that the polysemy of the word "inclusion" must be surpassed in order to give the attention and work that this need demands in the school.

As you have noticed, this number is broad because we had to know in detail the problem of migration from multiple critical approaches. For nuestrAmérica Journal, each number constitutes learning. We cannot accept the idea of a simple journal showcase of ideas without further ado. It is necessary to learn from those who participate in our calls, teach those who want to work in the area and, above all, build knowledge that contribute in concrete realities. The work is complex, but contributing from our areas, and with the resources we have, it is possible to move from theory to praxis... The call that we have always made as a journal.

 

 

 

 

 

Yuber Rojas Ariza

Full-time Professor Pontifical Bolivarian University /Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (Colombia)/

 Thematic editor Revista nuestrAmérica n° 10

 

 

 

Pascual García

Full-time Professor Private Technical University of Loja

 /Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (Ecuador)/

 Thematic editor Revista nuestrAmérica n° 10

Matheus Cardoso da Silva

Editor in Chief

Revista nuestrAmérica

Ismael Cáceres-Correa

Editor in Chief

Revista nuestrAmérica

 



Revista nuestrAmérica, ISSN 0719-3092, es una publicación seriada de investigaciones científicas y académicas con especial interés en el pensamiento crítico y descolonial. La edición es realizada por Ediciones nuestrAmérica desde Abajo Ltda, antes Corriente nuestrAmérica desde Abajo, en la ciudad de Concepción, Chile. Esta publicación es coordinada por su directorio desde Argentina, Chile, Brasil y México. Revista nuestrAmérica no aplica ningún tipo de cobro por procesamiento de contenidos y adhiere a las políticas de acceso abierto. Esta revista adhiere a las políticas mínimas comunes del primer acuerdo de Deycrit-Sur. Todo lo aquí publicado se realiza exclusivamente bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.

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