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Volume 7, issue 13 (January-June 2019)



Right-wings at the new end of the century: the Americas in the second half of the 20th century and opening of the 21st century

Thematic editors

Renato Alencar Dotta

Felipe Azevedo Cazetta

Maria Aparecida de Aquino




The political field is an uneven and shifting terrain for those who do not have good location tools. Although generically divided between right and left, such categories include a variety of conceptions, projects and political actions. Thus, Norberto Bobbio presents them as exclusive and exhaustive qualities. "They are exclusive in the sense that no doctrine or movement can be simultaneously right-wing and left-wing. And they are exhaustive, in the sense that, at least in the strongest sense, (...), a doctrine or movement can be either right or left. "(Bobbio, 1995, 31).

On the other hand, these two groups are subdivided, showing that they are fragmented territories. Thus, in the right-wing field, the democratic-liberal (the right is generally institutionalized), the authoritarian-liberal (as was the case with the Pinochet dictatorship), the conservative (the Democratic-Republican dichotomy in the US), the authoritarian-centralizing (as was sought in the Vargas dictatorships in Brazil and the Perón dictatorships in Argentina), and other variations are perceptible.

It is important to note, however, the loss of meaning of this dichotomous classification in the practice of various political parties in the region. For example, in Mexico, Manichean and circumstantial alliances between right-wing and left-wing are becoming more common. For example, in the case of the presidential election that recently marked the first victory of a left-wing party in the country's history, the PAN (right-wing party) and the PRD (left-wing party) allied. This alliance, however, has been seen for years in the Mexican state and municipal elections. The same occurs in the case of Brazil and other countries in the region that opt for political coalition models.

If we concentrate the focus only on the Latin American context in the first decades of the 21st century, we could reflect on the rise of the new right-wing governments, within this multiplicity of meanings, as a response to the "progressive leftist" governments and/or the result of policies of openness to diversity that intensified nationalist sentiments and conservative groups. The examples are countless: Colombia which, until the peace agreements signed by former President Juan Manuel Santos with the FARC, justified the maintenance of a continuous war and a militarized state by the fight against drug trafficking, receiving logistical and financial aid from the United States, whose extensions reached a reactive policy of "decriminalization" of so-called "illicit drugs"; The same is true in Mexico; or in the United States, with the rise of the so-called "Neocons" in the first decades of the 21st century, in the context of the "War on Terror" of post 9/11, which today are reflected in policies of criminalization of immigration, led by Donald Trump both in his presidential campaign and in his current administration; or even in Brazil, which in 2016 saw the construction of a process of impeachment by then-President Dilma Rousseff, based on a rarefied discourse of "the fight against corruption", which empowered a series of political micro-organizations and think tanks that mobilized through conservative agendas and the resumption of an anachronistic discourse of "the fight against communism", dating from a re-reading of Cold War polarization, to address affirmative policies (such as anti-abortion laws, anti drug discrimination, anti-racial quotas, etc.).

Thus, we are pleased to propose the "Dossier: Right-wings at the new end of the century: the Americas in the second half of the 20th century and opening of the 21st century" with the purpose of calling for research that in some way contemplates the issue of rights in America and other continents. The following descriptors serve as general guidelines. We are open to discussing other topics that have a link to the proposed theme.





1. The recent coups in Latin America (Honduras, Paraguay, Brazil): executed by the oligarchies and at the service of neoliberalism;

2. Military regimes in Latin America and the role of the United States from 1960 to 1980;

3. The oligarchies of the continent and the repression of popular movements;

4. Conservative religious organizations: Catholics and Protestants;

5. Anticommunism and Cold War;

6. The right-wing after the end of the Cold War on the continent;

7. The rise of the neocons in the United States, September 11 and beyond;

8. The role of think tanks in the promotion of conservative agendas in the second half of the 20th century and the first decades of the 21st century.




Questions to ask

1. What are the relations that the military dictatorships of the region had with the "Leader of the Free World", the United States?

2. How was the process of police control and dissemination of the secret services, such as the Condor Operation, in different countries of the continent?

3. What is the role of multinationals on the continent and their influence on local politics during the Cold War years and what is their role in the global political format of the 21st century? How was politically organized local entrepreneurship in the same period?

4. What is the role of charismatic leadership and its ambiguities with the right-wing: Getúlio Vargas, Juan Domingo Perón, José María Velasco Ibarra, etc.?

5. What is the impact of the Washington Consensus on the continent? How were the advances and setbacks of neoliberalism on the continent?

6. Was/is anti-Chávez a permanent factor in the convergence of Latin American right-wings?

7. What has been the political role of the press on the continent?

8. Are there connections between the economic crisis of 2008 and the current right-wing advance on the continent?

9. United States: What is the impact of Obama's rise to the right in general and to racist and xenophobic movements in particular? What are Donald Trump's relations with the American extreme right. What are the relations of the Canadian right-wing with the right-wing in other countries?





Renato Alencar Dotta: PhD in Social History from the University of São Paulo - USP (FAPESP Scholarship), Master in Social History (CNPq Scholarship), Bachelor of Science and History degree from USP. He worked as a historian in the municipal museum of the city of Mauá (SP). With several years of experience in higher education in the areas of Contemporary History, Education and Tourism; he was also a teacher in elementary, middle and technical education. Themes with which he works: Political History (authoritarianism, integralism, fascist movements, Era Vargas), Regional History (São Paulo and metropolitan region), and Museums and Cultural Heritage. He is an associate researcher in the Group of Studies of Integralism and Other National Movements (CNPq), at the Fluminense Federal University (GEINT-UFF), at the Laboratory of Contemporary Studies and Research, and at the Federal University of ABC (LEPCON-UFABC). He is a founder member of the History, Right and Authoritarianism (ANPUH) WG. He organized two books about the right-wing in Brazil, and at that time (2018), he organized a third one. He was a member of the heritage councils of Mauá and São Bernardo do Campo. Link to CV:

Felipe Azevedo Cazetta: He is a professor at the State University of Montes Claros (UNIMONTES) in the areas of Modern and Contemporary History. He holds a degree in History from the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (2009), a master's degree in History from the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (2011) and a PhD in History from the Universidade Federal Fluminense (2016). He has experience in History, with emphasis on Contemporary History, working mainly on the following topics: integralism, Lusitanian integralism, Brazilian Integralist Action, authoritarianism and theory. Link CV:

Maria Aparecida de Aquino has a degree in History from the University of São Paulo (1974), a degree in Arts Education - Faculdades Integradas Alcântara Machado (1975), a Master's Degree in Social History from FFLCH / USP (1990) and a PhD in Social History from FFLCH / USP (1994). She is currently a retired professor at the University of São Paulo and a contributor to the Graduate Program in Social History at the University of São Paulo. She was a coordinator of the Post-Graduate Program in Education Art and Cultural History of Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie. She is also a lecturer in the History of Integrated Faculties of Guarulhos (FIG) course and the International Relations Course of the University of Sorocaba (UNISO). She has experience in History, with emphasis on Contemporary History, History of Brazil Republic, working mainly in the following subjects: Brazilian press, military regime, censorship, political crisis in Brazil, politics in Latin America. Link CV:





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Important dates

Deadline: October 5, 2018

Publication: January 1, 2019.



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